How Fast Should You Change the Tires?

I am an unabashed car nut and like to watch a variety of motor racing series. In particular I tend to stay focused on Formula 1 with a secondary interest in the endurance series (e.g Le Mans). In watching several races recently, I observed that the differences in how each series managed tire changes during pit stops carried some interesting analogies to deploying software quickly.

Each racing series has a different set of rules and limitations with regard to how pit stops may be conducted. These rules are imposed for a combination of safety reasons, competitive factors, and the overall viability of the racing series. There are even rules about changing tires. Some series enable very quick tire changes – others less so. The reasons behind these differences and how they are applied by race teams in tight, time competitive situations can teach us lessons about the haste we should or should NOT have when deploying software.

Why tire changes? The main reason is that, like deploying software, there are multiple potential points of change (4 tires on the car – software, data, systems, network with the software). And, in both situations, it is less important how fast you can change just one of them than how fast you change all of them. There is even the variants where you may not need to change all 4 tires (or system components) every time, but you must be precise in your changes.

Formula 1

Formula 1 is a fantastically expensive racing series and features extreme everything – including the fastest pit stops in the business. Sub 4-second stops are the norm, during which all 4 tires are changed. There are usually around18 people working on the car – 12 of whom are involved in getting the old tires off and clear while putting new tires on (not counting another 2 to work the jacks). That is a large team, with a lot of expensive people on it, who invest a LOT of expensive time practicing to ensure that they can get all 4 tires changed in a ridiculously short period of time. And they have to do it for two cars with potentially different tire use strategies, do it safely, while competing in a sport that measures advantage in thousandths of a second.

But, there is a reason for this extreme focus / investment in tire changes. The tire changes are the most complex piece of work being done on the car during a standard pit stop. Unlike other racing series, there is no refueling in Formula 1 – the cars must have the range to go the full race distance. In fact, the races are distance and time limited, so the components on the cars are simply engineered to go that distance without requiring service, and therefore time, during the race. There are not even windows to wash – it is an open cockpit car. So, the tires are THE critical labor happening during the pit stop and the teams invest accordingly.

Endurance (Le Mans)

In contrast to the hectic pace of a Formula 1 tire change is Endurance racing. These are cars that are built to take the abuse of racing for 24 hours straight. These cars require a lot of service over the course of that sort of race and the tires are therefore only one of several critical points that have to be serviced in the course of a race. Endurance racers have to be fueled, have brake components replaced, and the three drivers have to switch out periodically so they can rest. The rules of this series, in fact limit the number of tire wrenches the team can use in the pits to just one. That is done to discourage teams from cutting corners and also to keep team size (and therefore costs) down.

NASCAR

NASCAR is somewhere between Formula 1 and Endurance racing when it comes to tire changes. This series limits tire wrenches to two and tightly regulates the number of people working on the car during a pit stop. These cars require fuel, clean-up, and tires just like the Endurance cars, but generally do not require any additional maintenance during a race, barring damage. So, while changing tires quickly is important, there are other time eating activities going on as well.

Interestingly, in addition to safety considerations, NASCAR limits personnel to keep costs down to help the teams competing in the series afford the costs of doing so. That keeps the overall series competition healthy by ensuring a good number of participants and the ability of new teams to enter. Which, to contrast, is one of the problems that Formula 1 has had over the years.

In comparing the three approaches to the same activity, you see an emerging pattern where ultimate speed of changing tires gets traded based on cost and contextual criticality. These are the same trade-offs that are made in a business when it looks at how much faster it can perform a regular process such as deploy software. You could decide you want sub-four second tire changes, but that would be dumb if your business needs 10 seconds for refueling or several minutes for driver swaps and brake overhauls. And if they do, your four second tire change would look wasteful at best as your army of tire guys stands around and watches the guy fueling the car or the new driver adjusting his safety harnesses.

The message here is simple – understand what your business needs when it comes to deployment. Take the thrill of speed out of it and make an unemotional decision to optimize; knowing that optimal is contextually fastest without waste. Organizations that literally make their living from speed undestand this. You should consider this the next time you go looking to do something faster.

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